ancient history

tribal warfare and nomadic cultures gave way to urbanization, advanced agriculture, empire and government. in europe and asia, massive national powers rose – greek and roman culture flourished and the warring states period developed modern ideas of culture and military. trade between nations grew from simple barter to exchanges from the pacific in the east to europe, eventually to the atlantic in the west.

civilizations also grew in the americas and africa during the ancient period with maya and aztec power and culture rivaling anything in europe, despite neither being aware of the other’s existence.

the “ancient” period can be thought of as the time between the beginning of human culture to the start of contact between european imperial powers and the americas in the late fifteenth century. this would be from the start of the bronze age giving us an approximate time reference of 4000bce to 1500ce.


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